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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • The manuscript file is blinded to facilitate double blind peer review
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • In case a clinical phtograph is used, every effort is made to conceal identity of the patient.
  • Patient Consent form and IRB approval letters attached (where applicable)
  • All the authors fulfil ICMJE criteria of authorship and approved final version of the manuscript. Signed Authorship Declaration form is attached.
  • ICMJE Conflict of Interest form (available on is properly filled and attached (by principal investigator)

Author Guidelines

Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery follows Recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for Manuscript Preparation and Submission.

Download Instructions

Download Documents

  1. Title page format
  2. ICMJE conflict of interest form
  3. Authorship declaration form
  4. Patient consent to the publication form

General Guidelines

  • The first file to submit to the online submission system of the Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery must be ICMJE Conflict of Interest Form. The Authors should fill this form and attach it with submission files.
  • The manuscript file should be blinded by removing author/institution information.
  • All the information regarding authors, Institutions, Emails, Declarations, and Covering letter must be submitted as a title page.
  • Metadata of all the contributing authors (ICMJE Authorship Criteria) should be added on the Submission Metadata page during manuscript submission.
  • Supplementary files such as the Authorship Declaration Form, Consent to Publication Form, IRB Approval Certificate, etc. should be uploaded with the submission files (where applicable).

Reporting Guidelines

  • Reporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy, and CARE checklist for case reports.
  • The authors should download and fill the respective checklist and upload it with the submission files.

Manuscript Sections

The following are general requirements for reporting within sections of all study designs and manuscript formats.

Title Page

It includes general information about an article and its authors such as article title, author information, any disclaimers, sources of support, word count, and sometimes the number of tables and figures. It must be composed of; (Submit separately, do not merge it with the main manuscript file). Download example 

  1. Article title.
  2. Author information. Please add affiliation details including the name of the department(s) and institution(s) or organizations, email address, and Open Researcher and Contributor Identification (ORCID- optional/may be added to article submission metadata) of each author. Please indicate the Corresponding Author with Asterisk (*). Also, provide an address for correspondence. 
  3. Disclaimers (if any). An example of a disclaimer is an author's statement that the views expressed in the submitted article are his or her own and not an official position of the institution or funder.
  4. Source(s) of support. These include grants, equipment, drugs, and/or other support that facilitated the conduct of the work described in the article or the writing of the article itself.
  5. Conflict of Interest/Disclosure of relationships and activities. Please paste the statement generated using the ICMJE Conflict of Interest Form
  6. Acknowledgments.
  7. Consent to Publication. Please add this statement to your title page (Also submit Consent Form during uploading of the manuscript) "Author(s) declared taking informed written consent for the publication of clinical photographs/material (if any used), from the legal guardian of the patient with an understanding that every effort will be made to conceal the identity of the patient, however it cannot be guaranteed."
  8. Author Contribution. Refer to ICMJE Authorship Criteria. Please add the contribution of each author, e.g. "Author(s) declared to fulfill authorship criteria as devised by ICMJE and approved the final version. Authorship declaration form indicating individual contribution, submitted by the author(s), is available with the editorial office."
  9. IRB approval status and number. Only required for original research articles 
  10. Trial Registration number. Only required for RCTs. 
  11. Word count. A word count for the paper's text, excluding its abstract, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, and references.
  12. The number of figures and tables
  13. Covering letter. 


Original research, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, Evidence-based report, and case reports require structured abstracts. 

  • Original Research Article. The abstract is divided into 4 subheadings which are self-explanatory, Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. About 3-5 keywords/MeSH should be added at the end of the abstract.
  • Systematic review/meta-analysis. The abstract is divided into 4 subheadings which are self-explanatory, Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. At the end of the abstract Trial registration number should be pasted. Unregistered trials can write "Unregistered trial" in place of Trial registration no. About 3-5 keywords/MeSH should be added at the end of the abstract.
  • Evidence-based Reports: Abstract is divided into 3 subheadings; Background, Findings, and Conclusion. About 3-5 keywords/MeSH should be added at the end of the abstract.
  • Case Reports: Abstract is divided into 3 subheadings; Background, Case Presentation, and Conclusion. About 3-5 keywords/MeSH should be added at the end of the abstract.
  • In the rest of the categories where abstract is applicable, an unstructured abstract should be submitted along with 3-5 keywords/MeSH.


  • Provide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance).
  • State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation in 1-2 paragraphs.
  • Cite only directly pertinent references (3-5), and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.


  • The Methods section should aim to be sufficiently detailed such that others with access to the data would be able to reproduce the results.
  • The Methods section should include a statement indicating that the research was approved by an independent local, regional, or national review body (e.g., ethics committee, institutional review board). 
  • Describe settings (Institution/lab/hospital etc.) of the study
  • Describe duration during which the study was completed
  • Mention clearly about the study design used.
  • Briefly describe inclusion/exclusion criteria
  • Specify the study's main and secondary objectives–usually identified as primary and secondary outcomes.
  • Identify methods, equipment (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results.
  • Give references to established methods, including statistical methods; provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well-known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give the reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations.
  • Precisely identify all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Identify appropriate scientific names and gene names.
  • Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to judge its appropriateness for the study and to verify the reported results. Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size and precision of estimates. Specify the statistical software package(s) and versions used. 


  • Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first.
  • Do not repeat all the data in the tables or figures in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations.
  • Provide data on all primary and secondary outcomes identified in the Methods Section.
  • Extra or supplementary materials and technical details can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal.
  • Give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated.
  • Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables.
  • Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which implies a randomizing device), “normal,” “significant,” “correlations,” and “sample.”
  • Separate reporting of data by demographic variables, such as age and sex, facilitate pooling of data for subgroups across studies and should be routine unless there are compelling reasons not to stratify reporting, which should be explained.
  • To organize, the result section can also be divided into subheadings such as Demography, Presentation, Management, Outcome. 

Discussion & Conclusion

  • It is useful to begin the discussion by briefly summarizing the main findings and explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings.
  • Emphasize the new and important aspects of your study and put your findings in the context of the totality of the relevant evidence.
  • State the limitations of your study and explore the implications of your findings for future research and clinical practice or policy.
  • Discuss the influence or association of variables, such as sex and/or gender, on your findings, where appropriate, and the limitations of the data.
  • Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in other parts of the manuscript, such as in the Introduction or the Results section.
  • Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data.
  • In particular, distinguish between clinical and statistical significance, and avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless the manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses.
  • Avoid claiming priority or alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted but label them clearly.


General Considerations Related to References

  • Authors should provide direct references to original research sources whenever possible.
  • References should not be used by authors, editors, or peer reviewers to promote self-interests.
  • Authors should avoid citing articles in predatory or pseudo-journals. Although references to review articles can be an efficient way to guide readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work accurately.
  • On the other hand, extensive lists of references to original work on a topic can use excessive space. Fewer references to key original papers often serve as well as more exhaustive lists, particularly since references can now be added to the electronic version of published papers, and since electronic literature searching allows readers to retrieve published literature efficiently.
  • References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in the press” or “forthcoming.” Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source.
  • Published articles should reference the unique, persistent identifiers of the datasets employed.
  • Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of personal communication.
  • References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. e.g. "Acute appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the vermiform appendix.[1]"

Reference Style and Format

Article within a journal: Koonin EV, Altschul SF, Bork P. BRCA1 protein products: functional motifs. Nat Genet. 1996;13:266-7.

Article within a journal supplement: Orengo CA, Bray JE, Hubbard T, LoConte L, Sillitoe I. Analysis and assessment of ab initio three-dimensional prediction, secondary structure, and contacts prediction. Proteins. 1999, 43(Suppl 3):149-70.

In press article: Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ. Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide. Eur Respir J, in press.

Published abstract: Zvaifler NJ, Burger JA, Marinova-Mutafchieva L, Taylor P, Maini RN. Mesenchymal cells, stromal-derived factor-1, and rheumatoid arthritis [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum. 1999, 42250.

Article within conference proceedings: Jones X. Zeolites and synthetic mechanisms. In Proceedings of the First National Conference on Porous Sieves: 27-30 June 1996; Baltimore. Edited by Smith Y. Stoneham: Butterworth- Heinemann; 1996:16-27.

Book chapter, or article within a book: Schnepf E. From prey via endosymbiont to plastids: comparative studies in dinoflagellates. In: Origins of Plastids. Volume 2. 2nd edition. Edited by Lewin RA. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1993:53-76.

The whole issue of the journal: Ponder B, Johnston S, Chodosh L (Eds). Innovative oncology. In Breast Cancer Res 1998, 10:1-72.

Whole conference proceedings: Smith Y (Ed). Proceedings of the First National Conference on Porous Sieves: 27-30 June 1996; Baltimore. Stoneham: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1996.

Complete book: Margulis L. Origin of Eukaryotic Cells. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1970.

Monograph or book in a series: Hunninghake GW, Gadek JE. The alveolar macrophageIn Cultured Human Cells and Tissues. Edited by Harris TJR. New York: Academic Press; 1995:54-56. [Stoner G (Series Editor): Methods and Perspectives in Cell Biology, vol 1.]

Book with institutional author: Advisory Committee on Genetic Modification: Annual Report. London; 1999.

Ph.D. thesis: Kohavi R. Wrappers for performance enhancement and oblivious decision graphs. Ph.D. thesis. Stanford University, Computer Science Department; 1995.

 Online journal article: Saha S. Live workshops: A time to rethink. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg. [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Jun 18]; 23:55-6. Available from:


  • Tables capture information concisely and display it efficiently; they also provide information at any desired level of detail and precision. Including data in tables rather than text frequently makes it possible to reduce the length of the text.
  • Titles in tables should be short but self-explanatory, containing information that allows readers to understand the table's content without having to go back to the text.
  • Be sure that each table is cited in the text.
  • Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading.
  • Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes and use symbols to explain information if needed.
  • If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission, and acknowledge that source fully.
  • Additional tables containing backup data too extensive to publish in print may be appropriate for publication in the electronic version of the journal, deposited with an archival service, or made available to readers directly by the authors. An appropriate statement should be added to the text to inform readers that this additional information is available and where it is located.
  • Submit such tables for consideration with the paper so that they will be available to the peer reviewers.

Illustrations (Figures)

  • High-quality images/photographs with good resolution should be submitted preferably in tiff or jpeg format.
  • Pixilated images will not be published
  • For radiological and other clinical and diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, send high-resolution photographic image files. Before-and-after images should be taken with the same intensity, direction, and color of light.
  • Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
  • Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text.
  • If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the source, and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce it. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.
  • In the manuscript, legends for illustrations should be on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify, and explain each one clearly in the legend.

Units of Measurement

  • Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples.
  • Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury unless other units are specifically required by the journal.
  • Authors should report laboratory information in both local and International System of Units (SI).
  • Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.

Abbreviations and Symbols

  • Use only standard abbreviations; the use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers.
  • Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract of the manuscript.
  • The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on the first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.


In this category, manuscripts on COVID-19 will be submitted. Since the data need to be published without any delay, therefore, all the submission in this category will be internally reviewed at the earliest and will be published (online) ahead of publication schedule. Any category of submission including Editorial, original article, short communications, guidelines etc. can be submitted in this category. As the data on COVID-19 is rapidly changing on daily basis, the Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery disclaim any harm that can happen due to use of information dispersed under this section. The readers are advised to re-check the information from other scholarly sources and peers before using such information for treating patients.

Original Article

Original research papers are published under this category. Duplicate publications will not be published. Please see Instruction to Authors for details. Every manuscript submitted under this category will be peer reviewed.

Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis

Please see Instructions to Authors

Update Article

In this section, the authors can submit a previously published (in any journal) Original Article/Systematic Review/Meta-analysis/Narrative Review, with a substantial addition of data. The basic purpose is to publish an updated data on the same subject which can help scientific fraternity to draw valid inferences based on recent data. This will also enhance a citable life of a research. The basic structure of these manuscripts coincides with format of original category of submission. Following conditions must be fulfilled to submit manuscript in this category, as under;

  1. The article, on which update is being written, has been published at least 5 years earlier.
  2. Significant addition/change of data (>40%) has occurred over this period that might change statistics/inferences of the previously published data.
  3. IRB approval for the new publication has been taken separately.
  4. Proper reference to previously published article has been cited in introduction/methods.
  5. The manuscript does not come under auto/self-plagiarism. Please read this link for more information on auto/self-plagiarism.
  6. Text recycling is avoided by writing it in new context with literature search of recent literature.
  7. The Abstract has stated about update of previously published article in the Background part.
  8. No previously published same Figures/Tables/Flowcharts etc. is reproduced unless there is a clear need and the authors have taken proper permission from the previous publisher/editor.
  9. Authors have discussed the changes in the current data and their impact on previously drawn inferences.
  10. Approval letter from all the authors of previously published article must be submitted (New authors can be added as per ICMJE authorship criteria). 

Review Article

Narrative Review will be published under this category after peer review. Please see Instructions to Authors for more details.

Evidence Based Report

Case series of 4-9 cases will be published under this category after peer review. Case series of more than 9 cases can be submitted as an Original Article. The abstract should have subheadings as Background, Results/Findings, and Conclusions. The main body text should have following headings; Introduction, Methods (brief), Results, Discussion, and Conclusions. The word count for such articles should not exceed 1800 words in any case. Only 3 figures are allowed. The related figures can be grouped together in case multiple figures are necessary to be shown. Please see the Instructions to Authors for more details.

Short Communication

Preliminary findings of a research which is urgent in nature with respect to the implications on Public Health can be published in this section after peer review. Please see Instructions to Authors for more details.

Minimal Access Surgery

Manuscripts on minimally invasive approach/minimal access approach will be published in this category. The manuscripts of various categories like original article, Systematic reviews/meta-analysis, narrative reviews, new techniques, case reports, etc. can be submitted in this section. Kindly follow submission/authors guidelines for each category as shown on submission page of the journal.

Case Report

Case studies of 1-3 cases will be published under this category after peer review. For a single case based report, the word count should not exceed 1000 words excluding references (should not be more than 10). For 2 or 3 cases based report, the word count can be increased up to 1500 words. Not more than 3 figures are allowed in any case. The related figures can be grouped together in case multiple figures are necessary to be shown. Please see Instructions to Authors for more details.

Clinical Vignette

A brief account of clinical significance (brief case reports/case letters) will be published under this category after peer review. These manuscripts do not need any abstract. The main body of text can be divided into the following headings; Case presentation (brief and to the point, 1para), Discussion (brief and targeted with literature support, 2-3para, case summary/conclusion in the last paragraph). The total word count should not exceed 500 words excluding references that should not be more than 5. Only 1-2 figures are allowed at the maximum. The related figures can be grouped in case multiple figures are necessary to be shown. Please see Instructions to Authors for more details. It will be peer-reviewed by two reviewers.

Clinical/Radiological Quiz

A clinical scenario with a clinical or radiological figure/s showing some important findings can be submitted in this category. The readers should be asked few questions regarding the finding on the figure/s. The authors should also describe answers, supported by literature, to the questions so that readers can judge their clinical acumen. The manuscript should not be more than 500 words with 1-2 figures and references not more than 5. This type of manuscript will be peer-reviewed by at least one reviewer. Please see Instructions to Authors for more details.

Letter to the Editor

Communication regarding concerns/queries on recently published articles in Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery can be submitted in this categorey. Authors' response to queries will also be encouraged. Please see Instructions to Authors for more details. 

Innovation & Technique

Novel ideas and techniques are published in this section.

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